A simple translation of dukkha would be anything that makes one feel anxious, restless, or distressed. Anytime someone feels their life is out of sync they are experiencing dukkha. The first noble truth of Buddhism states all of life is suffering which means we all experiencing dukkha in one form or another at various times throughout our lives. The second noble truth informs us that the cause of this suffering is attachment. Thankfully the third noble truth assures us there is a way to free ourselves from suffering; by breaking our attachments. The breaking of attachments is a difficult accomplishment but, as The Last Jedi demonstrates it is possible and, when accomplished, allows for a sense of both peace and purpose.
I will pause here to say there are SPOILERS in the post so please do continue with that knowledge.
In The Last Jedi attachments bring a great deal of suffering to various characters. Kylo Ren, Rey, and Luke Skywalker all have attachments that bring them into painful situations, even when the opposite is sought. There is, of course, hope (there’s always hope in Star Wars) of breaking these attachments, as Master Yoda proves in his cameo appearance.
The Eastern Ego in The Last Jedi
The ego, as understood in western psychology, is a necessary aspect of our psyche. A part of our constitution that needs to be strengthened to enable us to be psychologically sturdy and capable of navigating the storms of our lives with skill, strength, and compassion. The eastern concept of the ego is a part of the psyche to be transcended, not strengthened. The ego in eastern thought (particularly Buddhism but the concept rings true in Taoism as well) is that part of ourselves that seeks separation and dominion over others. While promising power in usually delivers isolation. In The Last Jedi three characters are symbols of isolation. Either through their own words (Kylo Ren and Rey) or living arrangement (Luke Skywalker) we learn of their sense of isolation. All three are isolated by attachments they hold tightly in their hearts despite the ruin their grasping brings into their lives.
Kylo Ren’s Rage
Kylo Ren represents a fine misunderstanding of the idea of letting go of the past. He rages on multiple occasions that it is necessary to leave the past behind in order to be free of its weight. Freedom, therefore, is found by letting the past go…even killing it, as Ren puts it on occasion. His words, to be honest, carry a hint of truth. He is correct, being chained to a past that hinders growth is terrible. To be free of such chains is spiritually and psychologically liberating (just ask Ebenezer Scrooge!).
Unfortunately, we communicate with much more than words. Kylo is a engine of rage, and while some of his words ring true the fuel he utilizes to drive himself is akin to drinking poison in an attempt to assassinate someone. He is a man of rage, therefore his desire to break from the past is communicated as nothing more than a desire to destroy and dominate. His anger is not even satiated by replacing Snoke as Supreme Leader. Of course that was not enough. Dethroning Snoke merely opens the door for his own quest for domination.
His anger does not lead to peace but, rather, it feeds his ego. He seeks power. He seeks dominion over the galaxy. He has not freed himself of the past at all. In fact, his anger feeding his ego only deepens his war with his past. His anger has not freed him, it has bound him. He is walking the path of Vader, which ultimately brings him to isolation and frustration. This is apparent as he kneels in the ashes of his failed attempt to crush the rebellion and the pain he experiences when Rey slams her mind shut. Breaking from the past with naught but anger brings only bitter fruit.
Jedi, thy name is Hubris!
Luke Skywalker is one unhappy fella in The Last Jedi. He expressed his own frustration by denigrating the hubris of the Jedi. Darth Sidious came to power, began the empire, with a meticulous plan that unfolded right under the Jedi council’s collective noses! The Jedi, even Yoda, were blinded by self-righteousness that grew from their successes. Success, as we are taught in Taoism, can bring about great trouble.
Anger is referenced quite frequently in Star Wars as a key component of the path to the dark side. The Jedi seem cursed with the burden of hubris. Luke, much Kylo Ren’s thoughts of breaking with the past, speaks words that ring true. The Jedi were blinded by hubris…and so is Luke. He cannot forgive himself for failing Ben Solo (Kylo Ren). Talk about arrogant! Where is it written a teacher will, without fail, reach all their students? Such immature martyrdom often accompanies noble intention unrestrained by humility. Much like Qui-Gon Jinn (dismissing the Jedi council to train Anakin) and Obi-Wan (“I though I could train him [Anakin} as well as Yoda. I was wrong”) before him, Luke suffers for his hubris. Adding to Luke’s pain is the fact other students die and he let down his beloved sister and brother-in-law. Luke attempts to atone for his sins by turning his past into a weapon with which to bludgeon himself and the memory of the Jedi. Peace is rarely found in self-flagellation, but it is a great way to bind oneself on a wheel of suffering. In both anger and hubris we see dukkha rising.
Rey, you are a Jedi!
Supreme Leader Snoke mocks Rey as a true Jedi because of her “spunk” and spirit. She is also a fine mix of Kylo’s rage and Skywalker’s hubris. Her rage goes without saying to anyone who has seen her in the films. When in a battle she facial features and battle snarls are as ferocious as almost any character known for channeling anger into a fight. Rey’s deep well of anger is expertly communicated by Daisy Ridley’s portrayal of the character. The hubris is also present.
She is convinced, because Snoke hoodwinked her, that she can turn Kylo Ren away from the dark path. Luke warns her that the path she is choosing “will not end where you think it will.” She dismisses him, because, well…what does he know! I mean he’s Luke Skywalker and she’s been training in the ways of the Force for a solid week. Granted she has profound natural connection and, well, who needs discipline, training, fundamentals, and technique when you’re a natural. With hubris like this Rey is a Jedi or sure! She also, despite saying she is from Jakku, might be from the United States.
Don’t forget Snoke
Before we move on it is interesting to note that hubris ended the life of Supreme Leader Snoke. Despite (or perhaps due to) his clear mastery of the Force, Snoke does not “see” what Kylo Ren planned. As he mocks Rey for believing she could turn Kylo he praised his pupil for the strong resolve he sensed within his being. How he had cast aside his doubt and was ready to strike his enemy. Smoke was correct about all three: Kylo was full of resolve, had cast aside doubt, and was ready to strike…Snoke just couldn’t see the target. Nothing like a little pride before the fall.
The brilliance of the scene (which cause full audience cheers during my second sitting) was that Kylo was merely paving the way to the throne. He covets power, not peace. The audiences’ cheers turned to boos and my daughter asked, “Wait…but…what side is he on?” I told her, “His own. Keep watching.” Of course he was on his own side, as we have seen, the ego leads to isolation. Be careful where your attachments lie, you only get what you grasp.
Master Yoda and Forgiveness
When Ray leave Luke on his island he decides to burn a tree that holds the sacred texts of the Jedi. Yoda appears and, despite giving a determined explanation, Luke hesitates. To help his former student Yoda blasts the tree with a lightning bolt, setting it ablaze. Luke is horrified. Yoda is amused.
Chapter 20 of the Tao Te Ching informs us that a person living from the Tao will seem (depending on your translation) stupid, lost, dimwitted, dull, confused, and ignorant. Or, in Yoda’s case, a fool…laughing as the sacred tree burns. The moment reminds us of Luke’s own words, “The Force doesn’t belong to the Jedi” even as he struggles with his words brought to life by Yoda’s actions.
This is a lesson in breaking attachment. Despite his words Luke was still attached to the tree and the texts. He was not ready for this sight. Yoda’s destruction was done, not from anger, but love and wisdom. He clearly loves the force and knows Luke was correct, the Force exists without the consent of the galaxy for the continued harmony of all. It can surely outlive the burning of a tree!
The lesson is not over. Yoda then confronts Luke’s sense of failure by reassuring him that he did in fact fail. No doubts about it. So have other Jedi. So has Yoda. But failing does not make one a failure…that’s a false attachment. Failure can be a fierce but worthy teacher if one has the requisite strength to allow that process to unfold. Yoda became the humble teacher found in The Empire Strikes Back specifically because he learned the false path of hubris which humbled him in Revenge of the Sith. When hubris fades, struck down by self-forgiveness not rage, peace rises. Acceptance, of self and others, spreads. Such calm brings strength that anger can’t replicate.
I wonder if Rey, having confronted her hubris at such a young age, will become a peaceful warrior by the end of episode IX. She is on an excellent path, for she has been felled by hubris but, unlike the isolated Kylo Ren, has friends and allies who have her best interests in their hearts. Friendship trumps isolation. Forgiveness transforms failure. The breaking of false attachments brings peace. Perhaps by burning a sacred tree life itself becomes a sacred dance when we find ourselves in sync with the Force. Wouldn’t that be something?